ephemeris n : an annual publication containing astronomical tables that give the positions of the celestial bodies throughout the year; "today computers calculate the ephemerides" [also: ephemerides (pl)]
- Italian: effemeride
An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides; from the Greek word ephemeros = daily) is a table of values that gives the positions of astronomical objects in the sky at a given time or times. Different kinds are used for astronomy and astrology. Even though this was also one of the first applications of mechanical computers, an ephemeris will still often be a simple printed table.
The position is given to astronomers in a spherical polar coordinate system of right ascension and declination or to astrologer in longitude along the zodiacal ecliptic, and sometimes declination. Astrological positions may be given for either noon or midnight.
An ephemeris may also provide data on astronomical phenomena of interest to astrologers and astronomers such as eclipses, apparent retrogradation/planetary stations, planetary ingresses, sidereal time, positions for the Mean and True nodes of the moon, the phases of the Moon, and sometimes even the position(s) of Chiron, Lilith, and other minor or imaginary celestial bodies. Some ephemerides also contain a monthly aspectarian, while others often include the declination of the planets as well as their longitudes, right ascensions or Cartesian coordinates.
HistoryIn 1554, Johannes Stadius published a well-known work known as Ephemerides novae at auctae that attempted to give accurate planetary positions. The effort was not entirely successful, and there were, for example, periodic errors in Stadius’ Mercury positions of up to ten degrees.
Scientific ephemerisFor scientific uses, a modern planetary ephemeris comprises software that generates positions of the planets and often of their satellites, or of asteroids or comets at virtually any time desired by the user. Often there is an option to find the velocities of the bodies of interest, as well.
Typically, such ephemerides cover several centuries, past and future; the future ones can be covered because celestial mechanics is an accurate theory. Nevertheless, there are secular phenomena, factors that cannot adequately be considered by ephemerides. The biggest uncertainties on planetary positions are due to the perturbations of numerous asteroids, most of whose masses are poorly known, rendering their effect uncertain. Therefore, despite efforts to overcome these uncertainties, the JPL has to revise its published ephemerides at intervals of 20 years.
Solar system ephemerides are essential for the navigation of spacecraft and for all kinds of space observations of the planets, their natural satellites, stars and galaxies.
Scientific ephemerides for sky observers mostly contain the position of the mentioned celestial body in right ascension and declination, because these coordinates are the most often used on star maps and telescopes. The equinox of the coordinate system must be given. It is in nearly all cases either the actual equinox (the equinox valid for that moment, often referred to as "of date" or "current"), or that of the one of the "standard" equinoxes, typically J2000.0, B1950.0, or J1900. Star maps are almost always in one of the standard equinoxes.
Scientific ephemerides often contain further useful data about the moon, planet, asteroid, or comet beyond the pure coordinates in the sky, such as elongation to the sun, brightness, distance, velocity, apparent diameter in the sky, phase angle, times of rise, transit, and set, etc. Ephemerides of the planet Saturn also sometimes contain the apparent inclination of its ring.
An ephemeris is usually only correct for a particular location on the Earth. In many cases the differences are too small to matter, but for nearby asteroids or the Moon they can be quite important.
GPS navigation satellites transmit electronic ephemeris data consisting of health and exact location data that GPS receivers then use (together with the signal's elapsed travel time to the receiver) to calculate their own location on Earth using trilateration.
The majority of astrologers study tropical astrology, involving planetary positions referenced to the vernal (spring) equinox position along the ecliptic (the equinox being the nexus of Earth's rotational plane and Earth's orbital plane around the Sun). They use exactly the same referential frame of the astronomers, a part a small minority of astrologers who study sidereal astrology and use a different ephemerids, based on the constellations.
Though astrology is and always has been geocentric, heliocentric astrology is an emerging field; for this purpose a standard ephemeris cannot be utilized, and because of this specialized heliocentric ephemerids must be calculated and used instead of the default geocentric ephemerides that are used in standard Western astrology to construct the astrological chart/natal chart.
- The JPL HORIZONS online ephemeris
- Introduction to the JPL ephemerides
- The effect of asteroidal perturbations on the long term accuracy of ephemerides.
- Kharin, A. S. and Kolesnik, Y. B.; On the Errors of the Ephemerides Derived from Optical Observations of Planets. (1990), IAU SYMP.141 P.189, 1989.
- Source code for computing ephemerides - by Steve Moshier
- A Free 3200 Year Ephemeris Provided by Astro.com -- Based out of Zürich, Switzerland (available in 8 languages)
- The Original 3,000 Year High-Precision Daily Astrological Online Ephemeris from Khaldea.com -- 600BC to 2400AD -- Calculated for Midnight GMT; also with an Aspectarian included for years 1900 to 2005
- Interactive orrery and ephemeris provided by Fourmilab in Switzerland.
- Monthly Ephemeris
- Daily ephemeris, at the TAU AstroClub web site
ephemeris in Catalan: Efemèrides
ephemeris in German: Ephemeriden
ephemeris in Estonian: Efemeriid
ephemeris in Spanish: Efemérides
ephemeris in French: Éphéméride (astronomie)
ephemeris in Italian: Effemeride
ephemeris in Japanese: 天体暦
ephemeris in Polish: Efemeryda (astronomia)
ephemeris in Portuguese: Efeméride
ephemeris in Romanian: Efemeridă
ephemeris in Russian: Эфемерида
ephemeris in Slovak: Efemerida
ephemeris in Slovenian: Efemeride
ephemeris in Finnish: Efemeridi
ephemeris in Swedish: Efemerid
ephemeris in Vietnamese: Lịch thiên văn
ephemeris in Chinese: 星曆表